Fundamentals Of Astronomy


Astrology is the study of the influence of the celestial bodies on life on Earth. Our solar system consists of Sun, around which planets Saturn, Jupiter, Mars, Venus and Mercury revolve in elliptical orbits. Moon is a satellite of Earth and revolves around Earth. Since Moon plays an important role in Astrology, it is also considered for all practical purposes a Planet. Since the Moon’s orbit is inclined to the plane of Ecliptic (the apparent orbit of Sun), it cuts the Ecliptic during its revolution at two opposite points. These points are called Rahu and Ketu and they are also treated as planets in Hindu Astrology. Since these are only intersection points and don’t possess any mass, they are called as shadowy Planets. To understand how planets influence life on Earth, it is imperative to study some important fundamental aspects of Astronomy.

Basic Astronomy

Poles: Earth is a spheroid and if a perpendicular is drawn through the center of the Earth it will meet at two ends of the Earth’s sphere. These points are called Poles. One is said North and the other is called South. At North and South poles, there is no East or West direction.

Earth’s Axis: Line joining North pole and South pole passing through the center of the Earth is called the Axis of Earth.

Earth’s Equator: The great circle whose plane passes through the center of the Earth and which divides the Earth in two hemispheres (North and South) is the Equator. The circle in fact is traced by the perpendiculars drawn from the Earth’s surface to North and South poles. Hence, Equator is an imaginary line on the surface of the Earth midway between two poles i.e., it is equidistant from the North and South poles i.e., 90 degrees towards North or South.

Earth’s Meridian: The planes parallel to Earth’s Equator, having their center on the Axis, can be cut by the planes perpendicular to them and passing through the North and South poles of the Earth. These perpendicular circles are called Meridians. How to fix the co-ordinates of a place on Earth. For measurement we have to set a reference point. In India in olden days, Ujjain was the place of reference. But now, for the whole world, Greenwich is taken as the reference. Location of a place is identified by what is called the longitude and Latitude of the place with respect to Greenwich longitude and latitude i.e. the circles of reference are the equator and the meridian of Greenwich.

Longitude: The distance of a point where the meridian drawn through the point cuts the equator, is called the longitude of the place with reference to the point where the reference meridian cuts the equator. It is East or West i.e. Oto 180 degrees East or West.

Rashi / राशियां

The Zodiac is divided into 12 Rashi of 30° each. These are as under:

Each degree (Ansh) is again divided as under :

1 Rashi = 30° (30 Ansh) / 1° Degree (Ansh) = 60′ (60 Kala) / 1′ Minute (Kala) = 60″ Seconds (Vikala).

i.e. 20 degree (Ansh), 20 minutes (Kala) & 20 seconds (Vikala) can be indicated as 20°, 20′, 20″.

Tithis / तिथियां

There are 30 Tithis – 15 belonging to Sukla Paksha & 15 to Krishna Paksha, as in right hand side shown in the figure.

Nakshatras / नक्षत्रे

There are 27 Nakshatras. But in Sarvato Bhadra Chakra Abhijit Nakshatra is also used. In all, 28 Nakshatras are used in SBC. Their names & characteristics are given in Next Chapter. Abhijit Nakshatra is not used in following cases:

  • Fixing the year of events – based on Janma Nakshatra as first year of native’s life.

  • Deciding the favourable & unfavourable Nakshatras by dividing them into 9 groups – three Nakshatras in one group.


Abhijit Nakshatra extends from 9 R  6° 40′ 0″ to 9s 10° 53′ 20″.

New Ch

Ch is invisible on last day of the month known as Amavasya. After Amavasya, a small curve is seen in the sky on Pratipada of Shukla Paksha. This rise of Ch is classified as New Ch.


When Sy leaves a Rashi & enters another Rashi, it is known as Sankranti. I.e. when Sy enters Mesha Rashi, it is known as Mesh Sankranti.

Grahas - combustion & rise

When a Graha, during the course of its transit, comes near Sy or Sy comes near Graha, Graha disappears due to severe light of Sy. That phenomenon is known as combustion of Graha. When Graha reappears & is visible, it is known as Uday (rise) of Graha. Ma, Sa & Gu are always combust in West direction & again rise in East. Bu & Sk are combust in West & East also. They rise in both directions.

Graha Retrograde & Direct

When a Graha moves straight in transit, it is said to be straight or direct, and when a Graha changes direction due to Sy’s heat, it is said to be retrograde. A straight Graha always goes on. While the longitude of the retrograde Graha gradually decreases. Sy & Ch is always simple. While Ra and Ke are always retrograde. Other Grahas are also straight and retrograde. This position of the Graha can be learned from Panchang.

Important features of a horoscope – Chakra

  • Every horoscope has 12 Bhavas / भाव .
  • Bhava no. 1, 4, 7, 10 are known as Kendras / केंद्रे (angles).
  • Bhava no. 5 & 9 are known as Trikonas / त्रिकोण (trines).
  • Bhava no. 2, 5, 8, 11 are known as Panapharas / पनाफरस (cadent).
  • Bhava no. 3, 6, 9, 12 are known as Apoklimas / अपोक्लिमा (succedent).
  • Malefic Grahas are Sy, wanning Ch, Ma, Sa, Ra, Ke, Bu – whenever with a malefic Graha.
  • Benefic Grahas are Gu, Sk, waxing Ch ,Bu – when alone.

Misc. matters about horoscope

  • Any planet in the 5th or 9th Bhava/house produces favorable results.
  • The owners of the 3rd, 6th and 11th houses are always malefic, and if the owners are malefic they do not produce favorable results.
  • Favorable owners of the 4th, 7th and 10th houses are 100% malefic, even Gu and Sk, if they do not occupy a Rasi of their own or higher.
  • Unfavorable owners of houses 4th, 7th, 10th are 100% in favor.
  • Owners of the 5th and 9th houses claim 100% favor.
  • The owners of the 2nd and 12th houses are neutral if they do not own any other house.
  • The lord of the 8th house is the most malefic.
  • The owners of the 8th house also the master of the ascendant gives 50% favorable results.
  • The owners of houses 4th, 7th and 10th (Gu and Ska), if they are in house 2nd or 7th, are 100% malefic and become an Maraka.
  • The owners of houses 4th, 7th and 10th , if Bu is in house 2nd or 7th, is 50% malefic and 50% Maraka.
  • The owners of houses 4th, 7th and 10th , if Ch is in house 2nd or 7th, is 25% malefic and 25% Maraka.
  • If the owners of 8th house is Sy or Ch, then 25% are malefic.
  • The malefic owners of the 4th, 7th & 10th houses, as well as the owners of the 3rd, 6th, 8th, 11th houses are also 50% malefic.
  • Ra or Ke, if placed in the house of 1st, 4th, 7th, 10th, 5th or 9th, give favorable results, provided that their owners takes advantage of the ownership and when they are with a strongly favorable planet.
  • The Ch is less harmful than Bu.
  • The Bu is less harmful than Gu and Sk.
  • The 9th house is stronger than the 5th house.
  • The 10th house is stronger than the 7th house.
  • The 7th house is stronger than the 4th house.
  • The 6th house is stronger than the 3rd house.
  • The 11th house is stronger than the 6th house.
  • The malefic Graha becomes double unfavorable when it is in retrograde.
  • The auspicious Graha becomes twice as benign when it is in retrograde.
  • If the owners of 4th, 7th, 10th, 5th and 9th has a malefic nature, then they give unfavorable results, even if they are the graha of Yogi (this happens when the owners of houses 4th, 7th, 10th are in favor).
  • Astrology is an applied science. Our sages have used it extensively to predict all matters around the whole world, people, war and peace, market fluctuations, native life and death, happy and sad events, victories and defeats.
  • The malefic lords of the 6th, 8th & 12th houses are less unfavorable than the auspicious lords of the 4th, 7th & 10th houses.
  • Lagna owner is 100% auspicious.
  • The malefic owners of the 4th, 7th & 10th houses, if the owners of the 5th or 9th house are also the Graha of the Yogi.

All about Nakshatras

The zodiac is divided into 12 zodiac signs and 27 Nakshatras. There are 2¼  Nakshatras in each zodiac and each Nakshatra is equal to the 13 ° 20 ‘. Nakshatras plays an important role in Astrology. Janma Nakshatra is considered the most important in astrology and in SBC. The Nakshatra of birth is considered to be very sensitive.


  • From Janma Nakshatra, Nakshatras 2nd, 4th, 8th, 9th, 11th, 13th, 15th, 17th, 18th, 20th, 22nd, 24th, 26th, 27th are considered favorable.
  • From Janma Nakshatra, Nakshatras 1st, 3rd, 7th, 10th, 12th, 14th, 16th, 19th, 21st, 23rd, 25th are considered unfavorable.

Particulars of Nakshatras

  • Whenever a beneficial Graha is in a beneficial nakshatra as mentioned above or when a beneficial Graha has a beneficial vedha, positive results are to be expected.
  • Whenever an unfavorable Graha executes the Vedas in an unfavorable nakshatra as mentioned above, then unfavorable results are certainly obtained.
  • When two unfavorable Grahas are found in the Janma Nakshatra or there are unfavorable Vedha, the born can get sick.
  • Similarly, the simultaneous defeat of the Janma Nakshatra and Nakshatras 10 and 19 indicates death.

Tendency of Nakshatras

  1. Janma Nakshatra : It gives results according to its nature, but its results are everlasting.
  2. Sampath Nakshatra : A Graha placed on this nakshatra gives the most beneficial results, has a great influence on a person’s life. Beneficial Grahas produce more beneficial results.
  3. Vipath Nakshatra : It gives maximum obstacles and unfavorable results according to its nature. But the positive results are negligible. In other words. In this nakshatra, Jupiter produces unfavorable results for children and families.
  4. Kshemya NakshatraIt gives favorable results, which are enjoyed by whole family.
  5. Pratwara NakshatraIt does not give a direct result. It gives disappointments. It affects other people who interact with family members.
  6. Sadhaka Nakshatra : The lord or ruling Graha of this nakshatra achieves 100% favorable results, but after an effort. Some people quickly expect positive results, but they lag behind.
  7. Naidhana Nakshatra : Grahas occupying this Nakshatra indicate hopeful nature of native, but it rarely happens.
  8. Maitra Nakshatra : The Grahas in this nakshatra indicate all kinds of achievements through friends. Especially when traveling with famous or unknown people.
  9. Param Maitra NakshatraThe Grahas in this nakshatra give results through any person or organization as they travel. If there is an unfavorable planet in this place, a person’s achievements are destroyed.

Nakshatras – Padas & Consonants

What is Dasha? / दशा क्या है?

According to Vedic astrology, Dasha is an important factor in the horoscope. Dasha (duration) of each of the nine planets has a significant influence on a person’s personality and nature, as well as on all aspects of life. Those who believe in astrology may be afraid of Dashas, because all the planets from time to time give us their Dasha results, both positive and negative, depending on their good or bad position in the horoscope.

In Vedic astrology, the word Dasha is used to indicate the life of the planets. The period of the planets indicates when positive or negative effects occur depending on their position, position (Zodiac Sign), house (Bhava), conjunction (Yoga or Raja Yoga) or aspects (Drishti or View).

Types of Dasha

According to Vedic astrology, the position of the planets in a person’s horoscope determines the direction of his life. From this we can understand the importance of Dasha, who has a profound and serious influence on us. In astrology there are three types of Mahadasha or Vimshottari Mahadasha and Antardasha Dasha. These conditions can determine, over time, the outcome of our actions. Together with these, they also leave their mark on our personality.

The Dasha system of guided astrology is unique to Hindus. It is not found anywhere else. There are several types of Dasha systems, Sage Parasara mentions forty-two, but only two of them are common, namely Vimshottari and Ashtottari. Dashas provides a framework for assessing the impact of planets over a person’s life by showing how the planets distribute their impact. Each Dasha is ruled by one of the nine planets, and the quality and relative goodwill of each period is determined by that planet’s position in the natal chart. There are nine planets or planets that rule the various nine Dashas: the seven classical planets, as well as the northern node of the moon, Rahu, and the southern node of the moon, Ketu.

Mahadasha / महादशा

Mahadasha is a period which is ruled by the all the nine Grahas (planets) of every person’s life. Mahadasha is a period which knocks at the door of every person life. Mahadasha expand till 120 years which is distributed in all the nine Grahas (planets). Every persons life get different different effects due to different different Mahadasha. There are nine different Mahadasha periods which is divided into nine different Antardasha. Every person or people can know about their life by knowing about both the Mahadasha and Antardasha. 

Grahas with their fixed number of years in Mahadasha or Vimshottari Dasha

Antardasha / अन्तर्दशा 

In the above mentioned years of Mahadasha of planets, all the other planets are given time to travel which is called Antardasha. Along with the Planets Mahadasha , the influence of the lord of Antardasha has also been seen in these years. The Antardasha of the same planet comes first in the Mahadasha of the planets, followed by the rest of the planets in the same order as mentioned above.

For e.g., the first Antardasha of Venus is Venus – Venus, the second Antardasha is Venus – Sun, the third Antardasha is Venus – Moon, the forth Antardasha is Venus – Mars, the fifth Antardasha is Venus – Rahu, the sixth Antardasha is Venus – Jupiter, the seventh Antardasha is Venus – Saturn, the eighth Antardasha is Venus – Mercury, the ninth Antardasha is Venus – Ketu.

By this subdivision of planets , we can study the different effects of all the planets Mahadasha and Antardasha which guide us what has been occurred before and what will occur in future life cycle. 


Dasha of eclipse is not good in house 6,8,12. That is why the Dasha of the lord of these planets also gives trouble in life cycle. Antardasha of a benefic planet in a benefic planet gives good results. Antardasha of an inauspicious planet in an auspicious planet gives bad results.